Is Wholesome Dwelling Free? What does world information recommend?
The potential of people lost to poor health is immense. Is Healthy Living Free? No, each of us is on a unique indifference curve with years of healthy living on the x-axis and affordability on the y-axis. It tracks the various combinations of healthy living with economic affordability that provide the consumer with the same level of satisfaction. This is also conditional amongst other things through the current status of each person in terms of physical and mental health, age, heredity, habits, pre-existing diseases, physical affordability, the will to bring lifestyle changes towards a healthy life, the preferred system of medicine, patience, life goal and so on. Just because you can afford it economically does not guarantee a healthy life, as the human body is organically linked and nothing is mutually exclusive.
Health economics focuses on the burden of disease as measured by the concept of the Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY). What is DALY? One DALY corresponds to a lost year of healthy life. Therefore, a DALY equals the loss of one year of good health due to premature death (Called mortality) and due to Illness or disability (called morbidity). Thus, DALY is the sum of the years of life lost due to premature death and the years lived with illness / disability. This is a social measure and not an individual measure. A study by Max Roser and Hanna Ritchie (2016) on the burden of disease found that tThe global burden of disease adds up to a third of a year that is lost for every person on the planet.
Causes of the burden of disease
In 2017, in the world (India), around 62% (56%) of the burden of disease was from non-communicable diseases (NCDs), 28% (34%) of the burden from communicable diseases, maternal, neonatal and dietary diseases, and 10% ( 10%) came from injuries. Crucially, NCDs’ share of the disease burden is increasing worldwide and India is no exception. The NCDs amongst other things These include respiratory diseases, diabetes, mental disorders, liver diseases, musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, and neurological disorders such as dementia. Communicable diseases include malaria and neglected tropical diseases, HIV / AIDS, TB and now Covid19. It is interesting to note that as incomes increase, leading to improvements in general health and living standards, the burden of disease is largely due to noncommunicable diseases. In high-income countries, NCDs therefore account for more than 80% of the disease burden. In contrast, communicable diseases account for more than 60% of the disease burden in low-income countries.
Which diseases contribute to the burden?
The burden of disease by cause shows that noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases are at the top of the list, followed by cancer, diseases of the newborn, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of mental and substance use and other noncommunicable diseases.
Heart disease, cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, arthritis and mental disorders all increase with per capita income
Considering the BRICS states alongside the USA and Great Britain, the proportion of noncommunicable diseases rises in all countries with rising per capita income. Hence, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, arthritis and mental disorders are expected to increase as shown in the graph below.
Health expenditure per capita reduces the burden of disease
Health expenditure per capita has led to a decrease in the burden of disease in India, Russia, Brazil and South Africa (rising and falling), where, as in the US and the UK, the disease burden has remained near constant. Therefore, after a certain level of per capita health expenditure, the burden of disease is unlikely to decrease and accordingly other non-economic health measures such as yoga, avoidance of overeating, mental satisfaction and the like need to be brought into focus.
A higher per capita income does not reduce the number of years with disability or illness
The number of years who have lived with illness or disability seems to be constant with percapita income. For example, in India with a lower per capita income, a person lives with illness or disability for ten years, which is the same in the US, UK, South Korea and Brazil with much higher per capita incomes.
Does diabetes decrease with increasing per capita income?
The proportion of the population with diabetes (20 to 79 years old) in India and the United States is around 10%. A higher per capita income therefore does not necessarily reduce the proportion of diabetics. However, in the UK, South Korea, Russia and South Africa, higher per capita income has reduced the proportion of the population with diabetes. It is important to look for other reasons as well.
Burden of disease by age
Considering the burden of disease by age, the world bears the maximum burden in the age group 15 to 49 years old, followed by those aged 50 to 69 years under 5 years and 70 years and above.
Burden of NCDs in India by age
By age, the burden of NCD is largely borne by those aged 15 to 49, followed by those aged 50 to 69 and those over 70. Health spending would increase accordingly.
How is life expectancy related to the number of years you have lived with illness and disability?
In most countries, as life expectancy increases, so do the number of years living with illness or disability. This does not mean that life expectancy should not increase, but (1) it is affordable, (2) the poor and middle class can afford, (3) low-cost solutions to be adopted are crucial.
Non-economic solutions to reduce the burden of disease
Since the results have shown that the number of years lived with illness and disability with per capita income has not changed, it is important to look for non-economic solutions to the DALYs such as yoga, meditation, contentment, rest and tranquility to reduce. With patience, alternative drugs like AYUSH are vital that not only have proven themselves in fighting non-communicable diseases like heart disease, cancer, arthritis, diabetes, and high blood pressure, but have also proven cost-effective for the public and government to use these alternatives Solutions to believe. In this case, healthy living becomes affordable.
Disclaimer of liability
The views expressed above are the author’s own.